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I Introduction Lotteries held a prominent place in the early history of the United States including a role in the financing the establishment of the first British colonies They where frequently used to finance public works projects such as paving streets building wharves and constructing churches Most of the early lotteries in the United States were run by state and local governments but during the 19th century a number of private companies were hired by governments to operate and market public lotteries After a number of celebrated cases of fraud in these privatized lotteries most states moved to ban lotteries By 1894 no state permitted lotteries and 35 states had constitutional prohibitions against them Clotfelter and Cook 1989 Over the past forty years there has been a rapid growth in both the number and size of state lotteries in the United States In 1964 New Hampshire became the first state since 1894 to run a lottery Since then 37 other states and the District of Columbia have instituted lotteries Today most states offer five main types of lotteries instant games daily numbers lotto electronic terminal for keno and video lottery The gross sale of lottery tickets now exceeds 37 billion a year adding about 12 billion a year to state budgets Evans and Zhang 2002 pg 3 Figure 1 is a graph of total lottery ticket sales and profits during fiscal years October 1 to September 31 1970 to 2000 in real 1996 dollars As the numbers in Figure 1 illustratethe growth in the size of state lotteries has been staggering In fiscal year 1970 when only New Hampshire and New York ran state lotteries total ticket sales amounted to201 million By FY2000 the total lottery ticket salesreached 340 billion about 04 percent of the GDP and added 108 billion to statetreasuries Evans and Zhang 2002 pg 7 The lottery industry stands apart from the rest of the gambling industry because of unique features
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