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Parent-Child Attachment is important to the childs future emotional and social development According to Kagan 1978 an attachment is an intense emotional relationship that is specific to two people that endures over time and in which prolonged separation from the partner is accompanied by stress and sorrow But this is only a definition Our first attachment acts as a protype for all later relationships Even though Kagan definition applies to any attachment the crucial first attachment is usually taken to be our mother The attachment process can be divided up into several phases which are The Pre-attachment phase The Discriminate attachment phase The Discriminate phase and The Multiple attachment phase The Pre-attachment phase lasts until about 3 months of age From about 6 weeks babies develop an attachment to other humans begins This is shown through behaviours such as nestling gurgling and smiling which are directed to just about anyone The Indiscriminate attachment phase lasts until around seven months of age From about 3 months infants begin to discriminate between familiar and un- familiar people They will allow stranger to handle and look after them without becoming noticeably distressed From about 78 months infants begin to develop specific attachment This is demonstrated through actively trying to stay close to certain people mother and becoming distressed when separated from them This Discriminate attachment phase occurs when an infant can tell consistently the difference between its mother and other people Also at this time infants avoid closeness with unfamiliar people and some though not all display the fear of strangers response which includes crying andor trying to move away from them In the multiple attachment phrases from about 9 months strong additional ties are formed with other major caregivers father siblings and grandparents and with other non-caregivers friends According to psychoanalytic accounts the infant become attached to its caregiver because of hisher ability to satisfy its instinctual needs Freud believed that healthy attachments are
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