scroll to top
Stuck on your essay?
Get ideas from this essay and see how your work stacks up
Word Count: 871
Good reason exists to doubt whether genes advantage black Americans at sport as Jon Entine claims -- the phenomena of the birthday or age cut-off effect There is nothing genetic about being born in August rather than September but it can profoundly change the odds on becoming a professional footballer or tennis player as well as being treated for mental sub normality or dyslexia The cut-off effect shows that big population differences need not be genetic since they can arise from apparently small environmental ones The mere existence of different numbers of blacks and white in a sport thus says nothing by itself about genetic advantage that requires evidence of correlations between differences at the individual level between anatomy and physiological sport related traits and actual sporting success -- dramatic population differences could equally be due to apparently insignificant environment factors such as date of birth For example in the English FA premier league over twice as many players 285 are born in the three months Sept-Nov as the earlier three Jun-Aug 136 Gene wise they are the same In a similar way the Dutch tennis year starts from the beginning of the calendar year half its young league players between 12 and 16 are born in the three months January to March Dudlink 1994 Edwards 1994 The same effect with different months month cut-offs vary with sports has been found in cricket with fast bowlers tennis players and hockey players If having a birthday in the wrong month can have such dramatic effects what might be the effect of having a dark skin and the constant prejudice that means you are academically born dumb but bodily athletic Such effects could be large due to similar mechanisms to those that create the birthday effect This arises due to a self-amplifying advantage or disadvantage in the opportunity to learn a skill Individuals in a group cannot all succeed or all
@Kibin is a lifesaver for my essay right now!!
- Sandra Slivka, student @ UC Berkeley
Wow, this is the best essay help I've ever received!
- Camvu Pham, student @ U of M
If I'd known about @Kibin in college, I would have gotten much more sleep
- Jen Soust, alumni @ UCLA