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The development of liberal thought began in the seventeen-century England Often constitutional monarchy is perceived as a beginning of liberalism Growth of commercial middle classes and wealth accumulation and consumption leaded to a new individualistic morality The individual is a basic unit of the liberalism ideology Supreme goals of a liberal political system are preservation of the individual and attainment of individual happiness That includes the preservation of the individual properties that is individual life liberty and estate and the task of the government was to help the individual in doing so Individual is to be regarded as inviolable and human life as a sacrosanct so the violence is prohibited except in preservation of liberal society This ideology respects all persons as moral beings with equal sensitivity but at the same time it doesnt take women in account Individual is assumed to be essentially rational so it could be considered the prime source of value which determines justification of participatory rather than authoritarian government Liberalism diminishes importance of social whole which is considered not to have any rights against individuals This outlook can be called atomistic Liberal theorists are unwilling to invoke concepts such as the common good and public interests The only common good they want recognize is the maximization of the aggregate of individual benefits On the economic side 18th- and 19th-century liberalism based itself on the sovereignty of the market and the natural harmony of interests On this view if individuals are left free to pursue their self-interest in an exchange economy based upon a division of labour the welfare of the group as a whole will necessarily be enhanced Classical liberal economists describe a self-adjusting market mechanism free from all teleological influences While moral goals are invoked and ethical criteria presupposed in passing ultimate judgment on the system they play no part in determining the sequence of events within it The one propelling force is the selfishness of the individual
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