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Introduction Methylphenidate Ritalin is a central nervous system stimulant prescribed to treat narcolepsy and attention-deficit disorders It was patented in 1950 by the CIBA Pharmaceutical Company and was approved by the FDA Federal Drug Association in 1955 It is classified in the DSM IV as a highly addictive controlled substance along with cocaine due to its amphetamine-like effects It increases the attention span of children with Attention-Deficit DisorderAttention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADDADHD It also decreases restlessness helps the child sit calmly and allows he or she to focus It enables the patient to retain information and decrease spontaneous behavior It lasts for approximately 6-8 hours It is taken in tablet form in 5 10 and 20 mg doses taken 1-3 times daily or as sustained release tablets in 20 mg dosages taken once a day Approximately 90 of the worlds Ritalin methylphenidate is used in the US and currently over two million people are tak ing it Nuovo Jim p1 Ritalin is an overprescribed drug which is often given to children who are improperly diagnosed as hyperactive Composition Methylphenidate consists of numerous inactive ingredients other than the two enantiomers of methylphenidate Enantiomers are two versions of the same compound which are non-superimposable mirror images of eachother These mirror images indicate the property of chilrality They always occur in pairs The enantiomers are D-threo and L-threo The D-threo specifically targets the basal ganglia involved in the drugs therapeutic effect Corrina Wu p1 while the L-threo distributes itself over the entire brain The other inactive ingredients include DC Yellow No 10 FDC Green No 3 lactose magnesium stearate polyethylene glycol starch sucrose talc and tragacanth What is ADHD ADHD is characterized by inability to concentrate short attention span inability to follow directions hyperactivity and impulsive behaviors Many aspects of ADD and ADHD are not understood It is a developmental disorder which affects 3-5 of all children although in some school districts
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