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Efficacy of any therapeutic intervention is a ratio of its benefits for the patient to the side effects and objective of all medical research is to increase this ratio Any therapeutic procedure has side effects and objective of all medical research is to increase benefits to the complication ratio of them In the other word efficacy of a surgical procedure is a ratio of its benefits to the drawbacks A wide range of medical activities like removing a cancerous lesion includes human tissue intervention Before 1987 when Mouret performed the first laparoscopic hole-cystectomy all internal surgeries in the abdomen had led to a large incision through the skin to give surgeons ability to see and operate on the site now these kind of operations are known as open surgery OS OS includes the high risk of death during the operation and it has a high mortality rate after operation due to the risk of infections On the other hand it requires a long recovery time and high treatment costs for patient hospitals insurance companies and government All these drawbacks forced medical research to decrease invasiveness of surgical interventions Terms like low minimally or non-invasive surgery have been used since 1980 and refer to procedures with less invasiveness in comparison to open surgery In MIS usually two laparoscopic devices and endoscopic probeA minimally invasive procedure MIP is any procedure that is less invading than open surgery used for the same purpose A MIP typically involves the use of laparoscopic devices with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope and is carried out through the skin or through a body cavity or anatomical opening By use of a MIP a patient may require only a Band-Aid on the incision rather than multiple stitches or staples to close a large incision This usually results in less infection a quicker recovery time and shorter hospital stay or allows outpatient treatmentDuring the last 20 years minimally invasive
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