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Thomas Hobbes author of Leviathan claims that peace and unity can best be achieved by setting up a society by having humans agree to a covenant Hobbes Ch18 pg548 A sovereign who is in charge of protecting the society or state rules Hobbess society In his introduction Hobbes describes this commonwealth as an artificial person and as a body politic that mimics the human body Hobbes portrays the state as a gigantic human form built out of the bodies of its members the sovereign as its head Hobbes Introduction pg492 Hobbes calls this figure the Leviathan which means sea monster in Hebrew and is the name of a monstrous sea creature appearing in the Bible Hobbes tries to prove that a sovereign is necessary for preserving peace John Locke author of Second Treatise of Government places sovereignty into the hands of the people Locke claims that people are equal and has natural rights in a state of nature where they are free from outside rule In the state of nature people have the right to judge someone and execute the law against someone who violates their rights People take what they need from the earth but usually take more than they need Then they develop a common currency in order to trade their extra goods Hobbes claims that everyone is equal Hobbes Ch13 pg 531 everyone should fight for self-preservation Hobbes Ch14 pg 533 and everyone has to give up some rights to be able to enter a society Hobbes Ch17 pg547-548 Locke claims that everyone is equal Locke Ch2 4 pg626 everyone has the right to self-preservation everyone has the right to punish Locke Ch2 8 pg627 and everyone has to make a contract or promise before entering a society Locke Ch8 95 pg 650 Hobbes claims that freedom is the lack of impediments There are two types of freedom positive and negative Positive freedom is the ability to do what
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