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A Discussion on the Reasons Why Relative Ethics Isn't Unfair
Relativism is the belief that there are no absolute moral truths and that there is a relative value when considerations are made to evaluate a situation. There are arguments about relativist ethics being unfair because the concept is based on the morality of the individual and the circumstances therefore, some people may be...
Do the Weaknesses of Virtue Ethics Outweigh Its Strengths?
‘The weaknesses of Virtue Ethics outweigh its strengths.’ Virtue Ethics is a theory which focuses on becoming better people by developing traits which are known as virtues. Because it aims to do this; it enables people to achieve their potential and not have to put all of their focus in to the right and wrong of their ac...
How is It That All Humans Possess Conscience But Can Not Reach a Shared, Global Ethic?
This paper will look at how all sane human beings are similar in possessing a conscience, yet due to vast differences in cultures, beliefs, and ideologies, the human race is still not capable of reaching some “shared, global ethic” (Prozesky, 2007, p. 19). In the process of looking at this assumption, I hope to find proof t...
A Comparison of the Ethical Theories of Taylor and Schmidtz
Taylor introduces his ethical theory as life-centered rather than just human-centered. His thesis is “from the perspective of a life-centered theory, we have prima facie moral obligations that are owed to wild plants and animals themselves as members of the Earth's biotic community. We are morally bound (other things being...
An Analysis of the Theory and Applicability of the Argument Presented in The Survival Lottery, a Philosophical Thought Experiment by John Harris
Argument Analysis Essay #1 – The Survival Lottery In The Survival Lottery by philosopher John Harris, Harris proposes an experiment called the survival lottery, in which individuals are assigned numbers and would be drawn out of a lottery when an organ donation is needed. The people would be killed to donate their organs t...
A Report on Living and Making Decisions According to Utilitarian Principles for a Day
Utilitarianism can be defined as “a theory that the aim of action should be the largest possible balance of pleasure over pain or the greatest happiness of the greatest number.” (Merriam-Webster Dictionary) John Stuart Mill states in his essay that “Utility, or the Greatest-Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right...
A Critique of Rainer Marie Rilke's Statement That the Only Journey Is the One Within
The personal development of ethics and morals overshadows all other developments, according to German poet Rainer Marie Rilke in his quote “The only journey is the one within.” Specifically, “journeys” are rendered irrelevant when compared to the expedition an individual must endure to reach a state of complete moral enligh...
The Effects of Ethical Limitations in Society
Ethical judgment is the process of considering several alternatives and choosing the most ethical alternative. This process can also be described as the process by which an individual determines one alternative is morally right and another is morally wrong. An example of an ethical judgment could be when a loved one is on l...
An Analysis of Rene Descartes's Dualist Thesis on the Mind/Body Problem, Its Relevance, and Criticisms
Dualism Still Falls Short Because of René Descartes’ dualist thesis, philosophers have toiled over “the mind/body problem” for centuries. Many have directed their efforts toward dismantling his theory and have done so successfully. Much of their success has come from advances in science that have granted contemporary philo...
A Philosophical Discussion of the Subjectivity of Truth
"Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact. Everything we see is a perspective, not the truth," Marcus Aurelius once said. This quote states in as few words as possible what I believe to be everything that encompasses what truth is and where it comes from. For starters, all human beings have their own opinions about wha...
John Stuart Mill's Views on Happiness
Happiness is something everybody strives for. When you think about it, isn’t the most important thing in life to be happy? Well, to John Stuart Mill, a philosopher, he believes that happiness can be spread among people through basic actions. Is this possible? Looking at a so-called trivial subject, like gay marriage, how ca...
A Discussion on the Difficulties Related to Making an Ethical Decision
Ethics surround us everyday, which is why we shouldn’t be surprised that – when making certain decisions – ethics come into play. Whether you’re a CEO at a huge company or working at McDonalds, ethics are still valid. They are used as a guideline, a set of rules, to keep society in order. Now, it is no secret that people st...
An Examination of the Possible Response of Friedrich Nietzsche to the Writings of W.E.B. DuBois
Friedrich Nietzsche is well known for his book On the Genealogy of Morals in which he writes several essays addressing topics such as good, evil, bad, guilt, bad conscience, and much more. He targets what he calls the noble or master morality along with slave morality. More specifically within noble morality he discusses wh...
An Examination of Comprehensive Moral Theories as the Right Tools for Ethical Reasoning
Comprehensive Moral Theories as Tools for Particularistic Reasoning In employing ethical reasoning, we attempt to determine not only what it means to live a “good” life, but also how to go about living one. But what does ethical reasoning entail? Is there a methodic process that ensures intuitively moral actions? Through t...
A Review of Asceticism and the Spirit of Capitalism, a Thesis by Max Weber
Brief Analysis of “Asceticism and the Spirit of Capitalism” by Weber Weber’s argument1 heavily borrows from Richard Baxter’s concept of asceticism. As defined in lecture, asceticism refers to “rigorous self-discipline and avoidance of all forms of indulgence.” Baxter believed everyone should work hard to acquire wealth but...
The Difference between the Philosophical Ideas of Greeks and Jews
For our first examination in Western Heritage we were asked to memorize several dichotomies between the standard pattern of Jewish thought and the Greek tradition popularized by thinkers such as Plato and Aristotle. This is an important list of distinctions to make as these traditions are arguably some of the greatest contr...
A Response of Frans de Waal's Controversial Argument on the Theory of Evolution
Frans de Waal: Response PaperThe philospher Frans de Waal, in his work, Primates and Philosophers: How Morality Evolved, proposes that man is social and moral, and this society and morality have evolved over the ages- from apes and monkeys. He opposes Hobbes’ belief that man is an asocial animal and society was established...
An Overview of John Stuart Mill's Classical Utilitarian Theory
Mill’s classical utilitarian theory dismisses special obligations by stating that the most important consideration when making a moral judgment decision has to do with the consequences of the action. Special obligations, despite their nature, do not matter because the theory gives more importance to whatever decision will p...
An Analysis of the Concept of Fate Versus Free Will in Libertarianism and Determinism
The fate vs. free will question is a highly contested one. Many different theories have been presented to offer solutions to this question, particularly Libertarianism and Determinism. While both have attractive qualities, Determinism is the most logical. However, I do not agree entirely with Hard Determinism – I will inste...
An Overview of the Concept of Nihilism
Nihilism Nihilism, a philosophical doctrine, popularized by Ivan Turgenev, describes a belief that all values are baseless and nothing can be known or communicated because there is no deep order or purpose to the universe. Turgenev’s novel Fathers and Sons (1862) used nihilism to describe “crude scientism.” His character B...
The Argument Over the Truth in Stanley Fish's Rhetoric
In Stanley Fish’s Rhetoric, the dispute of the “rhetorical man” versus the “serious man” is one that has continued on throughout history. This argument in particular is one that has always been over the truth, and the clarity or complexity of that truth. Shedding light on this argument, opening the ignorant person’s mind to...
An Analysis of the Strengths and Weaknesses of Utilitarianism, a Normative Ethics Theory
Utilitarianism is a theory in normative ethics holding that the moral action is the one that maximises utility, therefore creating the majority of happiness for the majority of people. However, it is a theory that holds many strengths and many weaknesses. On one hand Utilitarinaism has many strengths. It is a democrati...
An Overview of the Illusion of Validity
Introduction In an age where content is flung at us by the twenty-four hour news cycle, social media, billboards, online advertisements, and any other source of information in this information age, it is crucial to understand the behavioral economic dynamics at play in any given economic situation. For instance, the illusi...
Objectivity and Seeking Truth According to Ayn Rand and Parker Palmer
The Crucible of Seeking Truth There are many theories when it comes to approaching how we should form the brain and gain knowledge from our surroundings. Some argue that it’s done best through the views of epistemology, whilst others argue it is done best in other ways. Take for instance Parker Palmer – he portrays an at...
Immanuel Kant's Views on The Process of Enlightenment
According to Immanuel Kant, the process of enlightenment is a choice. It is a conscious decision to break away from the masses and embrace the courage to be an individual. It is the path that strays away from the comfort of the majority and relies solely on an inherent knowledge that can only be fully accessed through the p...