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I Prenatal Development A Germinal Period - Conception to 2 weeks 1 Creation of the zygote 2 Continued cell division 3 Implantation - attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall 10 days after conception Blastocyst - inner cells embryo Trophoblast - outer layer placentaumbilical cord - life supports systems B Embryonic Period - 2 to 8 weeks after conception 1 Cell differentiation intensifies support systems for cells form and organs appears 2 Attached zygote becomes embryo Endoderm digestiverespiratory systems Mesoderm circulatory system bones muscles excretory system reproduction system Ectoderm nervous system sensory receptors skin parts such as hair and nails C Fetal Period - 8 weeks after conception until birth 1 Fetal size increases and organs start functioning 2 Reflexes appear and there is sexual differentiation D Miscarriage and Abortion 1 Most occur within 1st trimester chromosomal abnormalities 2 15-20 pregnancies end in miscarriage male fetuses more likely to miscarry 3 Abortions legal in US until end of 2nd semester 1 abortion for every 2 births Unwanted pregnancies stressful for woman regardless of how it is resolved Psychological effects of abortion include relief and guilt usually mild and disappears Women with previous psychiatric problems more likely to experience adverse effects II Teratology and Hazards to Prenatal Development A Teratogen - any agent that causes birth defects 1 Environmental Hazards Radiation chromosomal abnormalities Pollutants toxic wastes lead pesticides carbon dioxide mercury dangerous to fetus Drugs Thalidomide - prescribed in 1960s for morning sickness deformed babies Cocaineheroin addictionwithdrawal symptomsneurological defects Alcohol fetal alcohol syndrome Smoking low birth weight ADHD premature births SIDS Marijuana antibiotics excessive vitamins antihistamines aspirin diet pills harmful 2 Maternal diseases can cross the placenta barrier and cause birth defects - Rubella German measles - deafness - Syphilis - mental retardation blindness and skin lesions - Genital Herpes - only if mother is active during delivery and baby comes
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