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IntroductionExamination malpractice is a threat to the mission of education and anobstruction to the aims and integrity of examinations Nuss 1984 Fass1986 Davis et al 2009 Davis et al 2009 Haney et al 2007 Callahan2007 It has been described as ubiquitous Pincus et al 2003epidemic Haines et al 1986 and perennial Davis et al 1992 inschools and seems to transcend geographical boundaries Alutu et al2006 Cizek 1999 Lim et al 2001 Newstead et al 1996 The TimesEducational Supplement 020510 Hughes et al 2006a b Brimble et al2005 Research shows that it is on the increase Ahmed 1996 Bunza1996 Alutu et al 2006 Onyechere 2007 particularly in secondaryschools Grimes et al 2005 Evans et al 1990 Whitley 1998 Schab1991 Harding et al 2004 The commercialisation of education and theintroduction of league tables combined with the fact the students wanta fair exchange for money invested as consumers has led to an increasein the number of students and institutions involved in examinationmalpractice Media coverage has exposed the widespread and seriousnature of the problem The Times Educational Supplement 020510 andthere are now malpractice websites offering students help and materialson how to write their academic work at a price Often whenexamination malpractice occurs education authorities blame schools fortheir complacency and students and teachers blame each other The desire to pass is the primary reason students engage inexamination malpractice Cizek 1999 their motivation arising fromfeeling of self-protection and of fear of failure social expectationsand parental pressure and the improbability of being caught Evan etal 1990 Shraw et al 2007 Brimble et al 2005 Newstead et al 1996Michaels et al 1989 Newhouse 1982 Hendrix et al 1990 Researchshows that it is determined by student characteristics like age genderand lack of academic skills and effort Hughes et al 2006 McCabe etal 1997 Davis et al 1992 Ikwueke 2011 Uduogie et al 1997 Baird1980 Bowers 1964 LaBeff et al 1990 Hainess et al 1986 Jordan 2001and the contexts of teaching and learning Pulvers
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