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Leading Change by John P Kotter Harvard Business School Press 1996 In light of the increasing rate of change in the business environment due to factors such as technological advances and globalization the need to be able to make successful transformations within an organization becomes more imperative than ever before In Leading Change Kotter identifies an eight-step guide for making successful organization changes These eight steps stem from avoiding common mistakes made during organizational change efforts seen in the past such as too much complacency failing to create a powerful guiding coalition underestimating the power of vision under-communicating the vision permitting obstacles to block a new vision failing to create short term wins declaring a victory too soon and neglecting to anchor changes firmly into the organizational culture To avoid these mistakes leaders of an organization requiring changes should consider the following steps 1Establishing a sense of urgency 2Creating a guiding coalition 3Developing a vision and strategy 4Communicating the change vision 5Empowering broad-based action 6Generating short-term wins 7Consolidating gains and producing more change 8Anchoring new approaches into the culture In establishing a sense of urgency it is hoped that a leader of change will be able to direct stakeholders drive towards a common purpose and reduce complacency Common causes of complacency include the absence of a crisis low overall performance standards wrong performance measurement indexes too much happy talk from management and lack of sufficient performance feedback from external sources It is suggested that a leader creates a sense of purpose allowing weaknesses to be exposed setting performance targets that are too high analyze current opportunities and highlight the organizations inability to pursue them and cut-down on the happy talk and listen to disgruntled customers Very often committees of employees devoted to making organizational change are ineffectual because they do not have the any influential senior managers who can make changes happen and reinforce the
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