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Word Count: 1,023
Transportation has been a part of everyday culture since the beginning of time In many societies transportation was used for travel expeditions trade and religious purposes In ancient Egypt the Nile was crucial to the lives of the Egyptians Since roads were difficult to build in Egypt due to the immense amount of shifting sand the Nile was the main source of transportation Steedman 28 Transportation on the Nile was made possible by the construction of boats and ships In the Middle Kingdom boats became popular and very abundant Many things other than people traveled by boats including messages cargo the deceased and goods In the Middle Kingdom Egyptians used boats for many purposes such as transportation commerce and religious reasons Construction of boats and ships in the Middle Kingdom was detailed and meticulous work Although Egypt was poor in wood a sufficient amount came from other countries On that account the builders were able to bore holes along the edges of wood boards and lace them together with heavy rope Meadowcroft 56 Often the workers covered the seams with thick layers of tar or pitch Meadowcroft 56 Carpenters constructed most Egyptian boats For most wood boats the carpenters sawed thick planks of wood assembling the parts of the boats and using tools to hollow out the prow made from a tree trunk They used hammers small and long handled axes and chisels to help them complete the task Miguel 17 The steering gear had changed since the Old Kingdom By the Middle Kingdom it consisted either of a single large oar mounted centrally over the stern or on larger vessels of two steering oars mounted on each side Along with the steering gear the sail also changed drastically The part of the sail called the bloom no longer rested on the deck its weight was supported in a series of lifts These lifts passed through a number of rings on either side of the
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