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Sub-Categories of Science

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The Life and Ideas of Maria Winkelmann a German Astronomer
Maria Winkelmann was a German (Panitsch) born woman who lived from 1670 to 1720. She was one of the first astronomers of her time, and she is thought to have learned astronomy from her father, her uncle, and a self-taught astronomer (who later becomes her husband) by the name of Christoph Arnold of Sommerfeld, as she never...
786 words
2 pages
An Observation and Analysis of a Chemical Reaction
Rates can be measured by determining the amount of the product formed per minute time. Our group observed the reaction . The ions in iodate ion (Solution A) and hydrogen sulfite ion (Solution B) are unable to be seen in the solution but the iodide ion formed by this reaction will react with the iodate ion. The reaction bet...
611 words
2 pages
The Ancient Methods of Measuring the Earth
240 B.C., Greek astronomer Eratosthenes made the first good measurement of the size of the earth. According to Russel, he made these calculations “by using the length of shadows to figure out how high in the sky the Sun was in a certain place on a certain day. He knew of another place where there was no shadow at all on the...
370 words
2 pages
An Experiment to Determine How Different Colors of Light Affect the Photosynthetic Rate of Spinach Levels
Introduction All living organisms need energy to maintain order, to grow, and reproduce. Organisms ultimately get their source of energy from the sun, however we cannot convert light energy into usable energy alone. Instead, the light energy is first converted into chemical energy through an essential reaction that takes p...
1,403 words
9 pages
The Life and Achievements of the First Woman in Space, Valentina Tereshkova
The First Woman in Space On June 16, 1963, the Russian woman Valentina Tereshkova made history as the first woman to enter space. However, this illustrious achievement was accompanied by a dark shadow. During the time of the Cold War space race between the United States and Soviet Russia, the Soviet quest to put the first...
606 words
4 pages
An Experiment Using Hess' Law to Determine Heat of Reaction of Sodium Hydroxide Solution with Dilute Hydrochloric Acid
Internal Assessment: Hess’s Law DESIGN: Research Question: How can the heat of reaction of two separate equations be combined using Hess’s Law to determine the hear of reaction of sodium hydroxide solution with dilute hydrochloric acid? Introduction: Hess’s Law has been the basis of thermochemistry for the past century....
1,561 words
9 pages
A Study of the Relationship between Simplicity and Accuracy in Human and Natural Sciences
Plato defined knowledge as “A justified true belief”. Now in order to answer the question proposed we must define accuracy and simplicity. For the purpose of clarity in TOK, the definition of accuracy and simplicity needs to be enhanced. Therefore for the purpose of this essay, accuracy in terms of knowledge is something th...
1,858 words
8 pages
CRISPR/Cas9: The Future of the Human Race
CRISPR/Cas9: Editing for a Better Tomorrow Our species has come a long way on this little rock. Humans have invented written language, the wheel, spaceships, and robots to name a few of our many accomplishments. Now we have discovered the ultimate key to a greater tomorrow. A key that can formulate a world rid of disease,...
1,748 words
6 pages
An Experiment to Study the Process of Osmosis
Osmosis is the chemical and physical process that transports a solvent form a high concentration to a lower concentration. It is used everywhere from the tiny areas around your cell to the vast fresh water generating plants. In this project, we replicate this life-sustaining process using an egg. The egg demonstrates a hypo...
2,758 words
30 pages
An Experiment on the Effect of Angle on Acceleration
I. Data and Calculated Results Trial Mass(g) Start Height End Height Angle Vavg (m/s) aavg (m/s)2 Filename 1 189.6 14.5cm 13.9cm 0.23° 0.1655 0.03398 Trial 1.cmbl 2 189.6 14.5cm 13.9cm 0.23° 0.1917 0.03116 Trial 2.cmbl 3 189.6 14.5cm 13.9cm 0.23° 0.1734 0.02344 Trial 3.cmbl 4 290.2 14.5cm...
858 words
7 pages
An Experiment on the Force of Springs in an Accelerating Cart
I. Data and Calculated Results Spring Forces Individual Springs Spring Color Spring Constant (N/m) File Name Red 9.679 Spring Force Red.cmbl Blue 19.77 Spring Force Green.cmbl Green 40.14 Spring Force Blue.cmbl Table 1 Parallel Springs Spring Color Spring Constant(N/m) File Name 2x Blue 39.7 Spring...
1,420 words
9 pages
An Experiment on the Motion of a Glider Mass
I. Data and Collected Results Constant Hanging Mass with Changing Glider Mass Trial Hanging Mass(g) Glider Mass(g) Mass total(g) a(m/s.2) Filename 1 20 192.8 212.8 0.8601 Glider192.cmbl 2 20 292.8 312.8 0.6225 Glider292.cmbl 3 20 392.8 412.8 0.4505 Glider392.cmbl 4 20 492.8 512.8 0.3450 Glider...
711 words
5 pages
An Experiment on the Calculation of Normal Force
I. Data and Calculated Results Max and Mean Friction On the Block in Relation to Mass Trial Mass(g) Area(cm2) Max Friction(N) Mean Friction(N) File Name 1 113.43 65.5 0.7425 0.4036 L5T1.cmbl 2 617.23 65.5 2.862 1.784 L5T2.cmbl 3 1109.62 65.5 4.519 2.579 L5T3.cmbl 4 1605.03 65.5 6.295 3.949 L...
1,182 words
10 pages
An Experiment on the Effects of Weight on Speed and Friction
I. Calculations The equation of the relationship of the velocity after collision to mass of kinetic glider, total mass, and the velocity of the kinetic glider before collision can be modelled as such: Momentum of the glider before is equal to the Mass of the Kinetic Glider(kg) * the Velocity or When the Kinetic Glider...
1,250 words
10 pages
An Experiment on the Effects of Kinetic Energy and Momentum on a Stationary Glider
I. Data and Calculated Results Trial MassKinetic MassStationary MassTotal Vi Kinetic Vf Stationary Vf kinetic Filename 1 391.8 g 201.3 g 593.1 g 0.181m/s 0.253m/s 0.112m/s L7T1.cmbl 2 391.8 g 201.3 g 593.1 g 0.291m/s 0.375m/s 0.111m/s L7T2.cmbl 3 391.8 g 201.3 g 593.1 g 0.220m/s 0.297m/s 0.0...
1,296 words
9 pages
An Experiment on Angular Acceleration and Tension
I. Data and Calculated Results Trial MassHanging(g) RPulley(cm) MassDisk(g) RDisk (cm) αrad/s2 T(N) File 1 L8T1.cmbl 2 L8T2.cmbl 3 L8T3.cmbl 4 L8T4.cmbl 5 30 L8T5.cmbl 6 30 L8T6.cmbl 7 30 L8T7.cmbl 8 30 L8T8...
724 words
7 pages
Intertidal Zones as Significant Environment for Organisms and Producers
Intertidal zones have many different names given by the public, from seashore, to beachside, to foreshore and more. Intertidal zones are home to many types of algae, mollusks, and other organisms. However, they may be home to many organisms and producers they also cause issues like quicksand and erosion over long periods of...
792 words
3 pages
The Space Race Between the United States and the Soviet Union
After World War II drew to a close, the Cold War began, which pitted the United States and the Soviet Union against each other. Each side sought to prove the superiority of its technology, its military firepower and its political-economic system. Space exploration served as another dramatic arena for Cold War competition....
775 words
2 pages
The Life and Work of Fritz Haber
Fritz Haber Fritz Haber, also known as “the Father of Chemical Warfare”, was a German Jewish chemist. Haber was a Nobel Peace Prize winner for his work in ammonia synthesis. He was born on December 9, 1868 in Breslau (which is Poland today) Germany. Haber was well educated and studied under respected chemists Hans Bunte...
285 words
1 page
The Different Interesting Topics in Biotechnology
What is Biotechnology? Biotechnology is the use of biological processes to help solve
problems in the world. Through the use of living cells, biotechnology
allows for the efficient manufacturing of various useful products.
Biotechnology encompasses many diverse fields, from immunology, to
renewable energy, to agricul...
548 words
1 page
The Nest Step for Man's Insatiable Curiosity
The television series "Star Trek" calls outer space "the final frontier."
The brave men and women aboard the USS Enterprise, under Captain James T.
Kirk, exemplified human ambition, boldly going where no man had before.
Although these characters may be fictional, their desire to explore new
realms is quite real. Mankind has...
640 words
2 pages
The Personalities That Contributed to the Changes during the Scientific Revolution
The scientific revolution moved the world to a whole new level. Scientists with the help of philosophers have done it over and over again. The very big names that took part in this change are as follows: Nicolaus Copernicus Nicolaus Copernicus was a Polish astronomer. He wrote the book called On the Revolution of Celesti...
955 words
4 pages
The Different Challenges in the Cloning of Baby Jason
Baby Jason Case Study Human cloning is one of the most revolutionary yet controversial topics in the world of genetic research. To clone, or create an organism with an exact genetic copy as that of an existing organism’s, not only provokes a plethora of ethical concerns but further surfaces an exuberant amount of challen...
1,126 words
4 pages
A Lab Experiment Testing Centripetal Force
Introduction: Centripetal Force experiments with factors that are affected by centripetal force or change centripetal force. For instance, the correlation between centripetal force and tangential velocity is determined through experimentation and the radii of the centripetal motion is varied to observes its effects on tang...
928 words
7 pages
A Velocity Experiment With the Velocity and Time of a Falling Object to Produce a Reasonable Calculation for the Acceleration Due to Gravity of Earth
Acceleration experimented with the velocity and time of a falling object to produce a reasonable calculation for the acceleration due to gravity of Earth. The experiment was divided into parts, each with a specific procedure to determine the acceleration due to gravity. Both parts, however, required a basic photogate, an in...
1,025 words
7 pages