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Drug Dependence Drug dependence psychological and sometimes physical state characterized by a compulsion to use a drug to experience psychological or physical effects Drug dependence takes several forms tolerance habituation and addiction Bennett 1997 Tolerance a form of psychological dependence occurs when the body becomes accustomed to a drug and requires ever-increasing amounts of it to achieve the same pharmacological effects The condition is worsened when the certain drugs are used at high doses for long periods weeks or months and may lead to more frequent use of the drug However when use of the drug is stopped Drug withdrawal mat result which is characterized by nausea headaches restlessness sweating and difficulty sleeping The severity of drug withdrawal symptoms varies depending on the drug involved Bennett 1997 Habituation a form of psychological dependence is characterized by the continued desire for a drug even after physical dependence is gone A drug often produces an elated emotional state and a person abusing drugs soon believes the drug is needed to function at work or home Addiction is a severe craving for the substance and interferes with a persons ability to function normally It may also involve physical dependence Bennett 1997 Scientists often measure a drugs potential for abuse by conducting studies with laboratory animals Drugs that an animal administers to itself repeatedly are said to have the powerful reinforcing properties and a high potential for abuse These drugs include some commonly abused substances like opium alcohol and cocaine Other drugs such as marijuana and the hallucinogens appear to produce habituation in human even though they are not powerful reinforcers for laboratory animals The drugs that are commonly abused except for alcohol and tobacco can be grouped into six classes the opioids sedative-hypnotics stimulants hallucinogens cannabis and inhalants Bennett 1997 Opioids- This class includes drugs derived from opium such as morphine and heroine and synthetic substitutes such as methadone Medically is a potent
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