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Socioeconomic effects on children When Both Parents are Employed Socio-economic conditions in North America have contributed to the need for dual incomes for families Economically the number of two parent families below the poverty line would increase to an estimated 78 if they were to become single income families Ontario Womens Directorate 9 Socially it was the norm in the past for women to stay at home having a more expressive role in the family taking care of the children and providing emotional support for the family Presently women feel that their traditional roles as child bearers and homemakers must be supplemented with a sense of achievement outside the home Recent studies reflect an increased trend towards the dual income family and projections are for this trend to continue In 1961 30 of married women were working in 1978 38 were employed by 1981 50 were working and in 1985 55 held paying positions outside the home Jarman and Howlett 95 In 1961 only 20 of all two paren t families were dual wage families but by 1986 more than half 53 of all families were dual earning families Ramu 26 In light of the fact that the majority of two parent families in the 1990s have also become dual wage earning families it is important to examine the effects of such a phenomenon on society in general and on child rearing in particular Children acquire their goals values and norms based on the way that they view or identify with their parents as well as from the quality and amount of care love and guidance given to them by their parents Parents who work present a different image to their children than parents who do not work In addition wage earners including parents must in most cases be absent from the home during the day When considering these modifications to the family dynamics there is considerable basis for proof that the positive effects outweigh
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