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Cells are composed of oxygen hydrogen carbon and nitrogen which contain most important organic compounds in a cell are proteins nucleic acids lipids and carbohydratesWater makes up 60 to 65 percent of the cellSome cells are complete organisms as the unicellular bacteria and protozoa others such as nerve liver and muscle cells are components of multicellular organismsCells range in size from the smallest bacteria like mycoplasmas which are 01 micrometer in diameter to a egg yolks of ostriches which are about 8 cm in diametertehj shape and althought they may look different they insides are all the same all cells have a surrounding membrane and an internal water-rich substance called the cytoplasmCells are of two distinctly different types prokaryotes and eukaryotes thus the living world is divided into two broad categories see Classification The DNA of prokaryotes is a single molecule in direct contact with the cell cytoplasm whereas the DNA of eukaryotes is much greater in amount and diversity and is contained within a nucleus separated from the cell cytoplasm by a membranous nuclear envelope Many eukaryotic cells are further divided into compartments by internal membranes in addition to the nuclear envelope whereas prokaryotic cells never contain completely internal membranes The prokaryotes include the mycoplasmas bacteria and cyanobacteria formerly known as blue-green algae The eukaryotes comprise all plant and animal cells In general plant cells differ from animal cells in that they have a rigid cell wall exterior to the plasma membrane a large vacuole or fluid-filled pouch and chloroplasts that convert light energy to chemical energy for the synthesis of glucose Structure and Function Cells are composed primarily of oxygen hydrogen carbon and nitrogen the elements that make up the majority of organic compounds The most important organic compounds in a cell are proteins nucleic acids lipids and polysaccharides carbohydrates The solid structures of the cell are complex combinations of these large molecules Water makes up 60 to 65 percent of the
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