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The 14th Amendment was a historical milestone in the freedom and rights of the common black person It gave all persons born or naturalized in the United States citizenship and therefore the right to vote The 14th Amendment has been called the second Constitution in length and number of subjects touched it is by far the most sweeping and complex change ever made in the original Constitution This step in the civil rights movement was a major victory for African-Americans of all ages The 14th Amendment is as famous as its results The South was deeply opposed to this 2nd Constitution and as such found many loopholes and problems with the Amendment The effects of the 14th Amendment were the Jim Crow Laws the rise of the Ku Klux Klan KKK and accusations of unconstitutionality The Jim Crow laws were the Souths response to the unpopular 14th Amendment While the Amendment gave African-Americans the right to vote the Jim Crow laws denied that privilege by enacting a series of obstacles designed to prevent African-Americans from voting Southerners were afraid that the African-Americans in the South mostly freed slaves would vote and put black senators and representatives in Congress and local governments Three of the Jim Crow laws were the literacy test poll taxes and the grandfather clause The literacy test in itself was designed to test the potential voters knowledge of the United States and to see if he could read While whites were administered these tests and almost always passed blacks were administered to unfairly and almost none passed The black illiteracy rates were roughly 50 percent meaning 50 percent of blacks already would not pass the test The other 50 percent would be subject to unfair administration and petty errors The subtleness of these laws and administrations were small enough that if African-Americans complained white
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