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Word Count: 1,228
Cloning is the production of a group of genetically identical cells or organisms all descended from a single individual The members of a clone have precisely the same characteristics except where mutation and environmentally caused developmental variation have occurred The DNA is precisley the same and they are only differentiated by their experiences in which dictate their personality There are some types of natural cloning that nature displays Some animals have tremendous powers of Regeneration If the body of certain starfishes is cut up into its five arms each arm will regenerate a complete individual Another type of asexual reproduction found in all animals human beings included is the formation of identical twins triplets and so on Identical siblings constitute a clone The growth of a tumor in the body of an individual is in effect the formation of a clone of malignant cells Humans have learned from nature and started their cloning saga also In one meth od of artificial cloning used in plant breeding cells are cut from a plant and placed in a flask with a nutrient medium The cells grow and divide forming embryonic tissues that are transferred to soil where they produce complete plants Grafting is another method of cloning used in Horticulture Matching cuts are made in the stems of two plants which are then fitted together so that their transport systems are in contact The wounded area heals and the two stems become a single physiological unit All the McIntosh apple trees now in use and many other fruit varieties have been derived by grafting from single ancestral trees Nuclear transplantation in which nuclei from cells of one individual are transferred to unfertilized eggs whose nuclei have been removed is one method of artificial cloning in animals All the transplanted nuclei are generally identical and therefore the resultant individuals constitute clones Great concern has been voiced over the use of Genet ic Engineering for humans and animals One
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