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Word Count: 638
The artillery crews of both armies of the Civil War worked with the first guns that would eventually come to be the long-range killing machines that are used by the modern armies of today The Civil War saw the beginnings of rifled barrels and breech loading artillery with limited service however these new concepts were not fully developed and perfected until the years after the war On the battlefields of the Civil War the smoothbore guns reigned supreme There were three types of field ordinance that saw use during the Civil War Guns the heaviest of the field artillery which fired shells at a long range over flat trajectories Howitzers a lighter version of the guns that fired lighter shells on a high arching trajectory Finally mortars were employed to use their extremely steep firing trajectories to lob their projectiles over relatively close enemy fortifications The most common piece used by both Union and Confederate armies was a hybrid gun-howitzer the Model 1857 It was given the name Napoleon by its crews and effectively fired a twelve pound shell 1600 yards with devastating results As it was a smoothbore cannon the Model 1857 fired round projectiles and due to its bronze barrel was much lighter than other wrought iron barrel guns weighing in at around 2500 pounds All the guns of the Civil War whether smoothbore or rifled fired four basic types of ammunition solid shot shell spherical case and canister The first solid shot is as simple to define as it was to make solid shot was an iron ball which used its kinetic energy to damage fortifications troops or anything else that got in its way An added bonus to this type of ammunition was that it stilled proved deadly even if it missed its mark This added killing factored can be contributed to the round shape of the shot which allowed it to bounce along the ground wreaking havoc as soldiers tried
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