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throughout the nation In fact it was required by law in most southernstates In 1952 the Supreme Court heard a number of school-segregationcases including Brown v Board of Education of Topeka Kansas It decidedunanimously in 1954 that segregation was unconstitutional overthrowingthe 1896 Plessy v Ferguson ruling that had set the separate but equalthe young minister Dr Martin Luther King Jr The leaders organized theMontgomery Bus Boycott which would deprive the bus company of 65 ofits income and cost Dr King a 500 fine or 386 days in jail He paid thefine and eight months later the Supreme Court decided based on theschool segregation cases that bus segregation violated the constitutionFaubus announced that he had ordered the Arkansas National Guard tomonitor the school the next day When a group of nine black students arrivedat Central High on September 3 the were kept from entering by the NationalGuardsmen On September 20 judge Davies granted an injunction againstGovernor Faubus and three days later the group of nine students returned toCentral High School Although the students were not physically injured a mobof 1000 townspeople prevented them from remaining at school FinallyPresident Eisenhower ordered 1000 paratroopers and 10000 NationalGuardsmen to Little Rock and on September 25 Central High School wasreturned to the lunch counter each day When an article in the New YorkTimes drew attention to the students protest they were joined by morestudents both black and white and students across the nation were inspiredPresident Kennedy ordered Federal Marshals to escortJames Meredith the first black student to enroll at theUniversity of Mississippi to campus A riot broke out andbefore the National Guard could arrive to reinforce theimprisoned In 1963 Dr King the Reverend Abernathy and the ReverendShuttlesworth lead a protest march in Birmingham The protestors were metwith policemen and dogs The three ministers were arrested and taken toand call attention to their struggle for suffrage When Governor Wallacerefused to allow the march Dr King went to Washington to speak withPresident
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