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In 1812 Czar Alexander the First had sworn an oath that Russia would never make peace as long as an enemy stood on Russian soil Little did he know that not much more than a century later the enemy was those who were native to the Russian soil-the people The Russian Revolution was an event that shaped the rest of the 20th century worldwide The causes of the revolution go back many years before the actual revolution had even showed signs of breaking out The causes included a weak government indecisive leaders and a very backwards way of life for the people In the mid to late 19th century Russian leaders came to understand that Russia was backwards in its ways and that it must strive to modernize itself before the country was left in shambles Russians and their land could be described in one word poor The agrarian societies were weak because the land was only hospitable to trees and ice The peasants were serfs attached to the land and their masters In 185 3 war suddenly broke out in the Crimean Peninsula over Christian shrines in the Ottoman Empire After their defeat in the Crimean War Russias war leaders realized even more that they were behind the whole world in modernizing In response Alexander II then took the reigns of the empire radically improving the country Trans-continental railroads were built and then in 1861 the serfs were emancipated The government then strengthened Russias industry by promoting industrialization with the construction of factories But then as quickly as Alexander IIs reform reign started it ended In 1881 a group of terrorists assassinated Alexander causing a cessation of the reforms Suddenly economic modernization resurfaced again in the 1890s under the Finance Minister named Sergei Witte Witte believed that even though Russia was a backwards country modernization could still occur Under his leadership Witte helped the 35000 mile railway system come
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