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Word Count: 441
The perspectives of Weber Marx Durkheim and Toennies all share the common concept of modernization and the character of a modernized society however each had relatively unique perspectives of the positive and negative effects on our society Each attributes the cause of modernization to the Industrial Revolution citing the development of a new mutual dependence based on economic diversity as opposed to traditional communities based on close ties to family friends and a shared specific economy Increased urbanization results in a greater percentage of the general population living in highly industrialized areas with specific economic activities Capitalism relies on the increased efficiency of industrialization in order to progress which requires individuals to develop highly specialized skills This results in a necessity to rely on others to provide the necessities of survival and a new sense of society develops Toennies believed modernization would lead to an impersonal society with individuals associating based on their own their personal needs a state he called Gesellschaft in contrast to Geimenschaft the traditional sense of community Durkheim had a more optimistic view of modernity recognizing the diversity this would develop but worried about the possibility of such diversity resulting in variable fragile morals and societal standards Weber believed that modernization would lead to an upheaval of traditional beliefs and a disillusioned society where rational thought would consume us Marx saw capitalism as the new basis for our society He recognized the aforementioned effects but felt that they were necessary steps on the path to modernization and capitalism The perceived anti-capitalist views held by Marx are somewhat inaccurate While disapproving of capitalism in principle he saw capitalism as being the cause of inevitable social upheaval and a classless society with all the benefits and technologies of industry being applied to benefit all of mankind Forced social upheaval however
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