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Haemodialysis Thousands of people suffer from acute renal failure which occurs when the kidneys lose the ability to excrete wastes concentrate urine and conserve electrolytes Electrolytes are substances in solution consisting of various chemicals which can carry electric charges They exist in the blood as acids bases and salts such as sodium calcium potassium chlorine magnesium and bicarbonate Electrolytes are necessary to carry out electrical impulses from the brain to the nerves muscles and other tissues in the body Without them death is a sure result The urine produced usually decreases in volume because it is no longer being removed and in some cases there may be no urine produced at all This condition causes fluids and waste products to accumulate in the body The blood stream overwhelmed with nitrogen type wastes such as urea These waste products act as poisons when they accumulate in the body damaging tissues and the functioning ability of many different organs Approximately 3 out of 10000 people admitted to the hospital are diagnosed with acute renal failure Mallick 1999 The kidneys function is to filter out wastes and excrete fluid when the pressure of blood in the bloodstream forces blood through the internal structures of the kidney Decreased blood flow is one cause of damage to the kidneys and may occur when there is extremely low blood pressure hypotension from trauma complicated surgery septic shock toxin or bacterial waste infection like those excreted by E-coli hemorrhage to arteries and veins burns and dehydration Other causes of kidney failure are acute tubular necrosis which is the damage of kidney cells due to a lack of oxygen This may occur after toxic injury to the kidneys when they have been exposed to metals solvents certain antibiotics and other medications Also Myoglobinuria may cause damage to kidney tissue This may be caused by rhabdomyolysis which results from a crushing injury Myoglobin is an iron-containing pigment in skeletal muscle When this
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