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Word Count: 528
Petroleum is an oily flammable liquid composed by hydrocarbons which is found naturally beneath the Earths surface by drilling wells and it is usually called crude oil The color of petroleum can be colorless which is usually for gasoline and heavy black which is high in asphalt content It consists of a mixture of hydrocarbons with traces of various nitrogenous and sulfurous compounds 50-90 of petroleum is hydrocarbons and the remaining is composed chiefly of organic compounds containing oxygen nitrogen or sulfur Pennsylvania crude oils contain 97-98 hydrocarbons but some oil from California contains only 50 of hydrocarbons Oil is generally in sedimentary basins and there are three types of basins 1 Rock particles from sand to clay mud which were eroded from hills and mountains 2 biochemical and chemical precipitates such as limestone gypsum anhydrite 3 organic matter from plants and animals which lived in the sea or carried by rivers The modern petroleum industry began in 1859 when the American oil pioneer E L Drake drilled a producing well on Oil Creek in Pennsylvania at a place that later became Titusville Many wells were drilled in the region Kerosene was the chief finished product and kerosene lamps soon replaced whale oil lamps and candles Little use other than as lamp fuel was made of petroleum until the development of the gasoline engine and its application to automobiles trucks tractors and airplanes Today the world is heavily dependent on petroleum for motive power lubrication fuel dyes drugs and many synthetics During the past 600 million years decayed plant and animal remains have become buried under thick layers of rock It is believed that petroleum consists the remains of these organisms The small microscopic plankton organism remains are largely responsible for the high organic carbon content of fine-grained sediments like the Chattanooga shale which are the biggest source rocks for petroleum The leading producers of petroleum are the United States Venezuela Iran
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