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Word Count: 1,195
Water is essential for life as we know it on earth It is used byplants and animals for basic biological processes which would be impossible without theuse of water The origin of all life can be traced back to the water in the Earthsprecambrien seas Water is also the universal solvent It reacts with more elements andcompounds than any other substance known to man Water is a polar molecule made up of on atom of hydrogen and two atomsof oxygen It is attracted to itself by hydrogen bonds Hydrogen bonds are weaker thancovalent bonds but collectively these bonds hold water together and give it itscohesiveness These bonds are also very important to waters ability to absorb heat aswithout hydrogen bonds water would have a boiling point of -80 degrees C and a freezingpoint of -100 degrees C In reality however water has a boiling point of 100 degrees C and afreezing point of 0 degrees C The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of onegram of water by one Celsius degree is called a Calorie One Calorie is about twice asmuch energy as you need to warm one gram of most other fluids by the same amount Thismakes water much better for regulating the temperatures of animals and the environment Water also has a very high heat of vaporization Converting one gram ofcold water into ice requires 80 Calories of energy Converting the same amount of very hotwater into steam requires 540 The high amounts of energy required to change water fromits liquid state make water tend to stay a fluid The process of freezing water involvesslowing down the activity of the water molecules until they contract and enter into asolid state Once the ice is cooled down to 4 degrees or less the hydrogen bonds nolonger contract but they become rigid and open and the ice becomes less dense Becausethe ice has become less dense it floats on liquid water Water
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