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Word Count: 397
The Viking raids consequences The Vikings were often described as dire portents and the Viking raids as immense whirlwinds flashes of lightingand fiery dragonsflying in the air The Viking raids had begun The earliest raids were carried out by Norwegians Their immediate consequences were beyond dispute material loss humiliation for men and women rape figures as well as murder Regarding the linguistic consequences the Scandinavian influx left its mark on English place-names Common Scandinavian place-names elements are by village homestead as in Grimsby Grims village thorp secondary settlement outlying farmstead as in Grimsthorpe toft building site plot of land as in Langtoft and thwaite woodland clearing meadow as in Micklethwaite large clearing However Scandinavian influence on English went a good deal farther than place-names When the Vikings had begun to settle in England a number of words were borrowed relating to law and administration for the Danes had a highly developed legal sense they include thrall and the word law itself But the most remarkable feature of the Scandinavian loan-words is that they are such ordinary words words belonging to the central core of the vocabulary the names of close family relations for example Thus the word sister is Scandinavian So are the names of parts of the body yet the words leg and neck are Scandinavian Other common nouns include bag cake dirt fellow fog knife skill skin sky and window Everyday adjectives include flat loose low odd ugly and wrong and among everyday verbs are call drag get give raise smile take and want Moreover some grammatical words are from Scandinavian namely the conjunctions though till and until and the pronouns they them and their The Scandinavian pronouns no doubt had an advantage because they were less likely to be confused with the words for him and her When the Scandinavian words appeared
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