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Affirmative Action Affirmative action by definition is a program designed to favor minorities and remedy past discrimination Cummings p192 It started in 1961 with President John F Kennedy by instructing the federal contractors to take affirmative action to ensure that all people are treated equally regardless of race color religion sex or national origin Ever since it started for more than thirty years now it has been a controversial issue regarding employment practices Anniston This research paper will discuss the history of affirmative action the pros and cons of affirmative action in the workplace and in the educational system and proposition 209 In 1961 President John F Kennedy was the first to use affirmative action The Civil Rights Act of 1964 barred discrimination by universities or others that received federal assistance Cummings p192 After it came the Voting Act of 1965 Immigration Act of 1965 The Fair Housing Act of 1968 Nieli p5 In 1978 President Carter created the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Program OFCCP to ensure compliance with the affirmative action policies by the department of labor Brown Also in 1978 was the Bakke v Reagents of the University of California where Supreme Court upheld that use of race as one factor in choosing among qualified applicants for admission and reserving certain seats in each entering class of students for disadvantaged minorities were unlawful Affirmative action began to go downhill and fading away during the presidency of Ronald Reagan and later George Bush The republicans in the White House and in congress ignored the affirmative action Finally to the presidency of Bill Clinton the republicans were attempting to scare people into changing their party lines by saying that affirmative action is nothing more than a quota or reverse discrimination Brown Just by watching the history of this issue one can come to a conclusion that weve come a long way in regards to racial and gender discrimination Affirmative action programs offer individuals
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