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INTRODUCTIONWeve all heard about superconductivity But do we all know what itis How it works and what are its uses To start talking aboutsuperconductivity we must try to understand the how normal conductivityworks This will make it much easier to understand how the super partfunctions In the following paragraphs I will explain how superconductivityworks some of the current problems and some examples of its usesCONDUCTIVITYConductivity is the ability of a substance to carry electricity Somesubstances like copper aluminium silver and gold do it very well They arecalled conductors Others conduct electricity partially and they are calledsemi-conductors The concept of electric transmission is very simple tounderstand The wire that conducts the electric current is made of atomswhich have equal numbers of protons and electrons making the atomselectrically neutral If this balance is disturbed by gain or loss of electronsthe atoms will become electrically charged and are called ions Electronsoccupy energy states Each level requires a certain amount of energy For anelectron to move to a higher level it will require the right amount of energyElectrons can move between different levels and between different materialsbut to do that they require the right amount of energy and an empty slot inthe band they enter The metallic conductors have a lot of these slots andthis is where the free electrons will head when voltage energy is applied Asimpler way to look at this is to think of atoms aligned in a straight line wireif we add an electron to the first atom of the line that atom would have anexcess of electrons so it releases an other electron which will go to thesecond atom and the process repeats again and again until an electron popsout from the end of the wire We can then say that conduction of an electricalcurrent is simply electrons moving from one empty slot to another in theatoms outer shellsThe problem with these conductors is the fact that they do not let allthe current get
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