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Type II superconductors are much different from Type I superconductors because Type II superconductors gradually become superconducting materials as opposed to at a certain temperature as Type I superconductors do As opposed to Type I superconductors Type II superconductors are mostly metallic compounds and alloys The major exceptions to this are the elements niobium technetium and vanadium These are pure elements that are Type II superconductors at sufficiently low temperatures Type II superconductors have much higher critical temperatures than Type I superconductors Also opposite to Type I superconductors Type II superconductors do allow some penetration by an external magnetic field Scientists are still trying to understand what makes Type II superconductors have critical temperatures so much higher than those of the Type I superconductors It is thought that it is related to the planar layering in the structure of the crystal The highest temperature Type II superconductor is a perovskite with a critical temperature of 138 K an incredibly high temperature for a superconductor This compound is Hg08Tl02Ba2Ca2Cu3O833 The final type of superconductors is the atypical superconductors These superconductors are made by fullerides Fullerides or fullerenes are spherical molecules that are made of sixty carbon atoms This type of superconductors do not have the high critical temperatures that the Type II superconductors do Like ceramic superconductors fullerenes are a fairly recent discovery They were accidentally discovered in 1985 by Robert F Curl Jr and Richard E Smalley of Rice University in Houston and Professor Sir Harold W Kroto of the University of Sussex in Bighton England Because this material is fairly new not much is known about fullerides or why exactly they can superconduct Fullernenes are technically part of a larger family of organic conductors which include molecular salts polymers and pure carbon systems The molecular salts often referred to as molecular superconductors are the organic molecules that exhibit superconductive properties at very low temperatures Organic superconductors are composed of an electron donor the planar
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