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In Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle introduces several ideas about ethics a key one being that ethics is teleological goal-directed According to Aristotle everything has a purpose or end and this includes humans Aristotle argues that this purpose or function is directly related to living a fulfilled life depending on how well it is exercised and this in turn is linked to what is good Since human beings have parts that all have functions and humans are composed of these parts it makes sense to say that humans must have a function themselves In the same way that these parts are part of the body as a whole their functions are part of a whole function However to ascertain what the function of humans is we must first define what a function actually is it is what makes a thing what it is it makes it unique In this way Aristotle can determine some things which the human function is not The human function cannot be to live and reproduce or to perceive the world because plants live and reproduce and animals perceive They are not unique characteristics of humans Aristotle then concludes that the thing which sets us apart from any other animal is our ability to reason so the human function is to actively use good reason in our lives because somethings good is brought about by carrying out its function well so a humans good comes from reasoning well If we live well according to this we will be able to achieve a fulfilled life which is the ultimate end of life Aristotle put forward the idea that happiness is the ultimate end of life the chief good He believed that if we asked ourselves why we desire certain things we could come out with happiness as the answer In 1097b 24-25 he states that this can be found from identifying the function of man Since we have already realised good reason
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