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The overthrow of an existing government the installation of traffic-calming measures in a suburban street Abercrombie 2000 324 the nuclear disarmament movement the stop the war coalition all are examples of social movements A social movement as defined by Tarrow 1994 4 is collective challenges by people with common purposes and solidarity in sustained interaction with elites opponents and authorities This shows that social movements tend to try and bring about change by challenging those above them whether it is the local council the government or large corporations Weve seen this most recently with the huge protests across the world aimed at world leaders to stop the war in Iraq with upwards of 15 million on the streets of London Whitely 2003 and elsewhere to try and challenge and change respective governments positions on the war in Iraq and the war on terrorism We see social movements differ from interest groups and political parties because they have mass mobilisation or threat of mass mobilisation Marsh 2000 251 A social movement is also distinguished from other collective groups such as clubs and voluntary organisations in being chiefly concerned to defend or change society or the relative position of the group in society Marsh 2000 251 whereas clubs etc arent concerned generally in these large-scale issues For this essay I will be concentrating on modern social movements from around the 1950s60s onwards and will be using examples of different social movements eg Animal Rights movements Civil Rights movements Anti-globalisation movements etc to try and show why some social movements have succeeded in their aims and why some have failed in their actions I will examine factors such as the relationships between people within movements the ecology the makeup of the group gender and class etc the ideology of the movement and other factors that may affect a movements successfulness I hope to show that social movements can be successful but that movements can just as easily
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