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Word Count: 678
During the 200s and 100s BC Rome expanded overseas First they conflicted with the sea power and trading center on the coast of northern Africa Carthage They fought over the Mediterranean Sea in the Punic Wars In the first war Rome conquered Sicily and made it the first Roman province and also conquered Sardinia and Corsica In the second the Carthaginian general Hannibal and his army won several battles after coming over the Alps into Italy However under Publius Cornelius Scipios leadership Rome eventually beat him in 202 BC In the third Punic War Rome defeated Carthage entirely Rome then had the coasts of Spain and Africa under their control Rome also began to expand in the east after the second Punic War Originally this was to protect its allies along the east coast from pirates but soon conflicts arose with Greece and Macedonia In 338 BC Macedonia had conquered the Greeks Though Rome posed as the liberator of the Greeks by the 140s BC it had control of Greece and Macedonia Then in 133 BC King Attalus III of Pergamum died and left his kingdom to Rome Many things help explain why Rome was able to expand overseas but two are especially significant to the remarkable task Rome built an alliance of cities in Italy Those cities supplied them with enormous manpower They also had extreme pride in their military and government power This gave them confidence and superiority in the fairness of their cause While these great things were happening overseas things at home were not so great Unemployment rose because plantation owners who ran their plantations by working with slaves destroyed small farm businesses Wealthy Romans profited from taxes and slaves from conquered lands Because of this the gap between rich and poor widened In 133 and 123 BC Tiberius Gracchus and his brother Gaius started a program to give state-owned land to the poor The majority of
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