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Word Count: 639
Five Strands Critical factual historical cultural and aesthetic are five strands that are intertwined to create an effective perspective on understanding how to write a paper Correctly using the five strands will lead to successful written communication Thinking critically is essential to reading and writing Logical reasoning is used in two forms inductive and deductive reasoning When writing logically do not use or conclude with logical fallacies Kirszner and Mandell 57-59 To be able to think critically one must learn the abilities to prose problematic questions analyze a problem research and interpret facts imagine alternative solutions analyze competing approaches and answers and write an effective argumentative justification while acknowledging counterarguments Ramage and Bean 24 Critical knowledge or judgment allows the writer to critically examine the strengths and weaknesses in their own past writings 637-638 The second strand is factual To establish credibility it is important to distinguish fact from opinion Even though evidence can make an opinion more convincing it cannot turn it into fact To pursued a reader it is important to use reliable evidence The evidence must be accurate sufficient representative and relevant Arguments can be based on assertion but be sure they are backed by evidence for supporting information Kirszner and Mandell 55-56 The third strand historical reflects on the rhetorical practices in writing Classical rhetoricians examined ways that they could persuade listeners They concentrated on three kinds of proofs logos ethos and pathos Logo or the appeal to reason is the message the speaker is sending Ethos or the appeal to the speakers character is how the person delivers the message Pathos or the appeal to sympathetic imagination and emotions applies to how the audience reacts Ramage and Bean 333-334 In the cultural aspect it is a crucial to remaining open-minded but because of ethnocentrism it can be hard to do if something conflicts with beliefs Because everyone comes from a different
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