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Rafael Lopez Perez TOXIC WASTE Pollution Prevention GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS DEFINITIONS Pollution prevention consists of all those activities that reduce the generation of hazardous waste Many terms are used to describe these activities waste minimization waste reduction source reduction waste diversion pollution prevention recycling and reuse In a recent policy statements EPA suggested the following hierarchy for management of wastes Source reduction Recycling Treatment Disposal In plant practices that reduce avoid or eliminate the generation of hazardous waste as to reduce risks to health and the environment Actions taken away from the waste generating activity including waste recycling or treatment of wastes after they are generated are not considered waste reduction Also an action that merely concentrates t hazardous content of a waste to reduce waste volume or dilutes it to reduce degree hazard is not considered waste reductions The somewhat broader term pollution prevention has an evolving definition that includes Managing chemicals to reduce risk Identifying and estimating all releases Waste minimization VOLUME REDUCTION An appropriate place to initiate waste minimization investigations is to examine way to reduce the volume of hazardous waste This can be accomplished by a number methods including modifying production processes segregation and re-use It should be noted that under some regulatory schemes simply reducing the volume of the waste without an accompanying reduction in toxicity would not be considered was minimization Process Modifications Process modifications include changes in Raw materials Equipment Operating procedures Materials storage End products Hunt suggests the following additional measures to reduce dragout Increase drain time Air knife low pressure air to blow solution off parts Spray rinsing over process tank Minimize concentration of metal in plating bath Rack parts to maximize drainage Use drip bars to hold racked parts over plating tanks TOXICITY REDUCTION A number of waste minimization techniques reduce the concentration of contaminant in a liquid or solid waste stream without necessarily diminishing the
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