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The regulation of gene expression in mammalian cells is a complex process It is carried out in three levels which are inter-connected They are the sequence chromatin and nuclear levels van Driel et al 2003 Sequence Level Regulation involves processes that organize genetic material in a sequential manner At this stage the emphasis is on the regulation of the areas used to code for genetic informationStudies show that certain areas around functional genes contain control element and DNA sequences that regulate gene expression The role of those elements in regulation of gene expression will discuss it as the followingPromoters enhancers and silencers influence how single genes in the functional region of the mammalian cells will operateBinding of activator proteins to enhancer lead to generate the DNA looping that is positively regulating the gene expressionPrevious studies investigate that particular DNA sequence element known as insulators are responsible for performing a barrier against inappropriate proximal gene activation Bell et al 2001 Transcription factors TFs and RNA polymeraseThe major elements involved in activation of gene expressionStructural motifs of TFs result in its specificityIn mammalian the regulation of gene expression by TFs is required coordinated activity of other cis-acting elements in addition to the RNA polymerase activityChromatin Level Regulation the processes that are involved in the formation of chromatin to achieve its structure and have the capacity to function Some of the key processes that aid in regulation at this level areDNA methylation- reversible suppression of gene activity Example CpG island methylated status reflects the expression pattern of the proximal gene Histone modification alters the DNA accessibility for transcriptionAcetylation- opens up chromatin and facilitates transcription This is a reversible processMethylation- closes up chromatin and inhibits transcriptionPhosphorylation could cause gene expressionATP dependent histone modifying processes- they alter how nucleosomes are arranged in chromatin leading to activation and inactivation of genes They also help in unwinding of chromatin Linker histones help to regulate this processNuclear Level Regulation entails
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