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Flow of information is hierarchy structured required to follow chain of command Hierarchical communication can prevent conflicts between superiors subordinates Strategic Recruiting can occur Open communication channel Link between abuse of managerial authority hierarchy communication Organisations have norms rules Wilson 92 Guildsford 94 Diagonal communication links within organisation vol29 Middle managers fear what subordinates may say to top managers Upward Appraisals Baird 1977 Dynamics of organisational communication Its been reported that only 9 use this technique in organisations Bettenhausen Fedor 1997 Group and organisation management vol22 Negative views are managers ordering undesirable tasks withholding salary increases making employees job more difficult Positive view works best on flat hierarchy participating management good business environment Dalton 1998 5 Forces that affect 360 feedback process Pointers for communication openness Wage structure Effectiveness of recruiting good line managers Monitoring personnel decisions Job design Social Comparison in Virtual Work Environments Deondra S Conner 2003 journal of occupational organisational psychology vol761 The virtual work environment is an emergent phenomenon Weisenfeld et al 2001 journal of management vol272 The lack of physical proximity changes the interactions relationships between the parties involved Alexander 1997 Long range planning vol301 Working in a virtual context Crandall Wallace 1997Compensation and benefits review vol291 has three degrees of virtualness Telecommuting stage Front-line stage Cyber link stage Equity Theory Adams 1963 Consequently once an individual perceives inequity there are six options Change their inputs Change their outcomes Distort perceptions of self Distort perceptions of others Choose a different referent Leave or engage in withdrawal behaviours Comparison Theory Research Kulik Ambrose 1992 Academy of management review vol172 The use of such theories explain various concepts like worker performance perceptions of justice and fairness and turnover A study concluded that workers paid equitable wages were more satisfied than same-occupation co-workers when paid either more or less than such people Cart McLoughlin Hodgson MacLachlan 1996Genetic social
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