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Word Count: 988
Counter-reformation The response of the Roman Church to the reformers demands is the Counter-reformation The Jesuits founded by Ignatius of Loyola aggressively lead a campaign to support Catholic doctrine The members of the order acting behind the scenes in the Catholic monarchies exercise a strong influence in political spheres Jesuit priests often act as confessors to major political leaders Counter-reformation forces will uphold papal authority and will ensure that canonization and veneration of saints remains a cornerstone of celebratory ritual In addition the visual grandeur of the church is to be encouraged and generously financed Charles V strongly recommends that the papal Curia convene to resolve issues of internal dispute and after many delays a council convenes in Trent in December of 1545 Three basic issues are under examination two involve broad resolves to clarify doctr inal issues in order to still internal disputes and definitively solve the problem of ecclesiastical abuses among the clergy The third issue is the initiation of a crusade against the infidels Paul III frankly hopes to get widespread approval to condemn the Protestant heresy and thereby gain support for a suppression of the reformers by force In the end the Council of Trent succeeds not by condoning violence but simply by presenting a united front against the Protestants The Church at last prove s itself capable of action and of reinforcing its representation of the orthodox faith In the second half of the 16th century the theological conflict becomes a political power struggle By the time Martin Luther dies in 1546 and John Calvin in 1564 the Reformation message is complete The Protestant movement has split into a number of sectarian churches and no more great Protestant reformers are to appear Ignatius of Loyola dies in 1556 and the Council of Trent ends in 1563 thus also bringing the Counter-reformation to a theological halt The Catholic church was not caught unawares by the
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