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4 The novel from 1881 to 1914 Over the eighteen eighties there was a split in fiction The first indication towards it was Henry James essay The Art of Fiction 1884 which referred to the novelists calling as a Sacred office Besides there appeared a stratification of fiction due to primary education for all Parallel to this novelists saw themselves apart from the public as dedicated men This new modern conception involved dignity and a sense of glory Another change was from the three-volume novel to the one volume one Together with the demands of the new publics this shortening divided the Victorian novel into the categories of fiction we know today The key name in the eighties is Henry James who strove to give the novel the aesthetic intensity of poetry or painting The two dominant themes in his work are the international subject and that of the innocent After the eighties the novel became the dominant prose form 41 The Turn of the Century the Modern British Novel The turn of the century meant the end of the Victorian Era with the Queens death in 1901 The legacy of Darwin the Victorian loss of Christian Faith Socialism and the awareness of threat against Englands wealth increased the existing social discomfort Apart from this new discoveries such as Einsteins Special theory of Relativity 1905 and Freuds works Interpretation of Dreams 1900 and The Psychopathology of Everyday life 1901 were also important As concerns Visual Arts after the Post-Impressionist movement a great crisis of the subject followed This crisis led to Cubism and Dadaism Arts were then called to recognition of modern technology which was expressed in poetry through the introduction of free verse and broken syntax Therefore the Modern shows its discontinuity with the past though not completely 42 Modernism and Its Alternatives Modernism implies a sense of historical discontinuity either liberation from inherited patterns or deprivation Modernism runs
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