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THE HISTORY OF BLACK NATIONALISM Black nationalism is the name given to revitalization movements among black Americans emphasizing their African origins and identity their pride in being black their desire to control their own communities and sometimes the desire to establish a black nation in Africa or some part of the United States Black nationalism has been in the United States for many years Black nationalism was started with the abolitionists in the 1700s during slavery time with people such as Harriet Tubman Frederick Douglas Nat Turner and WEB Dubois These people made it possible for black people to be let out of slavery The exact origins of Black Nationalist movements are lost in the largely unwritten history of blacks in early America but it is clear that such movements began as protests against the brutal conditions of slavery A few records indicate that early African protest against slavery begun with Paul Cuffe 1759-1817 He was a black sea captain Between 1811 and 1815 he made the first attempt to establish a black American colony in Africa transporting several dozen people to Africa Early in the 20th century W E B DU BOIS developed a sophisticated rationale for a Pan-African movement that would join blacks in America and Africa In 1910 he did a mass movement that emerge Black Nationalism as its central theme In 1916 Marcus Garvey came to Harlem His Universal Negro Improvement Association had opened doors in urban centers all across the states Its goals included a black nation oriented toward Africa but run by black Americans The UNIA developed the first major black capitalist enterprises It included restaurants grocery stores hotels and a steamship line Garveys movement was the largest Black Nationalist organization in America The hostility from whites and mismanagement because of this the UNIA failed Another Black Nationalist movement was in Chicago Grover Cleveland Redding was preaching a Back-to- Africa philosophy of his own He organized the
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