scroll to top
Stuck on your essay?
Get ideas from this essay and see how your work stacks up
Word Count: 2,160
By about 7000 BC techniques of agricultural production in the Middle East had reached a level at which it was possible to support thousands of people many of whom were not engaged in agriculture in densely populated settlements Two of the earliest of these settlements were at Jericho in what is today the Israeli-occupied West Bank and at Catal Huyuk in present-day southern Turkey With populations of about 2000 and from 4000 to 6000 people respectively Jericho and Catal Huyuk would be seen today as little more than large villages or small towns But in the perspective of human cultural development they represented the first stirrings of urban life In these and other Middle Eastern Neolithic settlements occupational specialization and the formation of religious and political-military elite groups advanced significantly Trade became essential for the communitys survival and was carried on perhaps by specialized merchants with peoples at considerable distances Crafts such as pottery metalworking and jewelry making were highly developed At Catal Huyuk in particular both sculpture and wall painting were carried to a high level of sophistication In these earliest town centers the key ingredients of civilization came together Agricultural surpluses were sufficient to support specialized non farming producers and non farming political and religious leaders The interaction of these groups resulted in a burst of creativity and innovation in a wide variety of fields But these earliest centers were quite isolated They were merely tiny islands of sedentary cultivators and small numbers of townspeople surrounded by vast plains and woodlands The earliest town centers appear to have traded rather extensively but to have maintained only intermittent and limited contacts with neighboring hunting-and-gathering peoples Though small in size and not highly specialized in comparison with the cities of Sumer and other early civilizations the first towns settled during this period nonetheless played critical roles in continuing the Neolithic transformation The ruling elites and craft specialists of these towns contributed in several major
@Kibin is a lifesaver for my essay right now!!
- Sandra Slivka, student @ UC Berkeley
Wow, this is the best essay help I've ever received!
- Camvu Pham, student @ U of M
If I'd known about @Kibin in college, I would have gotten much more sleep
- Jen Soust, alumni @ UCLA