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Liberalism is the political philosophy emphasizing the value of individual liberty and the role of the state in protecting the rights of its citizens The idea of liberalism meant specific individual freedoms such as freedom of press freedom on speech freedom of assembly and freedom from arbitrary arrest By the early 19th century France with its Constitutional Charter and Britain with its Parliament and historic rights of English men and women were the only two nations that had implemented liberal programs Yet even in those two countries liberalism and not been implemented to its fullest capacity Although still impacting the mind set of many liberalism had lost some of its luster during the early 19th century because of new ideologies that had sprung up which supplement for some of liberalism shortfalls Many revolutionaries criticized the idea of a complete laissez faire economy with no governmental restrictions Also in the early nineteenth century liberal political ideals became closely associated with narrow class interest and increasingly with the middle class Many intellectuals and foes of liberalism thought that liberalism did not go far enough Nationalism is the ideology based on the premise that the individuals loyalty and devotion to the nation-state surpasses other individual or group interests Nationalism was the second radical idea in the years after 1815 Nationalism has usually evolved from real or imagined cultural unity mostly manifesting itself through the commonality of language religion history or territory Nationalists have tired to use these common bonds to unit together peoples to fight for or support a common goal And because of the cultural mixing pot in central Europe nationalism became a powerful ideology The early nationalist believed that every nation like every citizen had the right to exist in freedom However these overlapping beliefs created ambiguity because its main thrust was liberal and democratic while national superiority and national missions lurked below the surface French Utopian Socialism is the system of social organization
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