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Word Count: 675
The Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries saw the advent of gross urbanization of factory towns and cities Due to advancements in areas such as textiles and machinery many people flocked from the countrysides of Europe particularly Britain to cities where they sought work was factory operators and machinists To accommodate the tremendous influx of people cheap and cramped housing was built with communal wells provided for water However as there were few facilities for removing sewage and the living conditions were deplorable disease became rampant Typhoid fever cholera tuberculosis smallpox and rabies were infectious agents which followed the bubonic plague and found easy hosts in the unclean slums of Britain The first significant step towards the prevention of infectious diseases came in eighteenth century due to the influences of Lady Mary Wortley Montague Lade Montague was the wife of the British Ambassador Extraordinary to the Turkish court She had great influence within the aristocratic circles in England and used them to her advantage when describing the benefits of inoculation Lady Montague had previously encountered smallpox an experience which left her face heavily scarred and without eyelashes She was determined not to have her children suffer the same fate and traveled to Istanbul where inoculations were performed The process was primitive and crude it involved taking the matter from a smallpox scab and spreading over an open wound yet its purpose was served in protecting the receiver from the full dose of smallpox Lady Montague was able to persuade friends who were doctors in England of the benefits of inoculation She was a leading member of London high society and was thus able to successfully campaign inoculation in England Her influence led to the inoculation of many people and mortality rates decreased dramatically from 502 before inoculations to 4 after inoculations However these mortality rates were to further decrease when Edward Jenner of England discovered a vaccine for smallpox
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