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Employee turnover is a subject that has received extensive attention from various researchers Researches have been done with regard to the cost of turnover the driving forces antecedents predictors etc behind turnover solutions to turnover problem effects of turnover etc What interests me most is the research on the factors that drive turnover which answered the question why people leave the organizations they work for This literature review is to find out why turnover has received so much attention and the factors that drive turnover 1Why Turnover Has Received So Much Attention In todays world human resource becomes one of the most important resources an organization needs to succeed in its business especially in an era of information explosion and increasing instability in which many knowledge-based industries would likely show a 30 to 40 rate of annual turnover Harkins Philip J 1998 1 Almost every organization in every industry faces the high turnover problem which is persistent and expensive Turnover has proved to be a drain on organizations profit What is turnover According to Abbasi Hollman 2000 2 Turnover is the rotation of workers around the labour market between firms jobs and occupations and between the states of employment and unemployment Various studies have been done in this respect and proved that turnover is very expensive for organizations Turnover expenses differ by different industries companies functions etc For instance for public accounting firms each loss of a senior accountant costs the firms 4000 to 8000 in training and recruiting costs Apart from this the cost of losing outstanding accountants also extends to losing the value of their superior performance Roth Roth1995 3 According to White 1995 4 the US Department of Labour estimates that it costs a company one-third of a new hires annual salary to replace an employee To be specific many fast-food companies calculate the cost at 500 to replace one crew
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