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Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing 1912-1954 was a British mathematician who pioneered the basics of computer theory Alan was born London and attended school at both Cambridge and Princeton universities In 1936 Turing published a paper called On Computable Numbers which introduced the concept of the Turing machine The Turing machine was a theoretical computing device which could theoretically perform any mathematical calculation Soon after he chose to study artificial intelligence and biological forms He proposed a method called the Turing test to determine whether machines had the ability to think During World War II Turing worked as a cryptographer for the British Foreign Office In 1951 Turing was named a Fellow of the Royal Society and in 1952 he began to publish his work on the mathematical aspects of pattern and form development in living organisms In 1954 he apparently committed suicide probably in reaction to medical treatments he was forced to receive in order to fix his of homosexuality Turing Test Of all of Turings accomplishments the Turing Test was one of the best noted The Turing Test was developed during the 1950s Basically it is a test for artificial intelligence Turing concluded that a machine could be seen as being intelligent if it could fool a human into believing it was human The original Turing Test involved a human interrogator using a computer terminal which was in turn connected to two additional and unseen terminals At one of the unseen terminals is a human at the other is a piece of computer software or hardware written to act and respond as if it were human The interrogator would converse with both human and computer If after a certain amount of time Turing proposed five minutes but the exact amount of time is generally considered irrelevant the interrogator cannot decide which candidate is the machine and which the human the machine is said to be intelligent This test has been broadened
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