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Bertrand Russell Bertrand Arthur William Russell was born in Trelleck Wales on May 18 1872 He was a descendant of a prominent Whig family His grandfather was the Lord John Russell who had twice served as Prime Minister under Queen Victoria Bertrand was orphaned at the age of three and raised by his grandparents He was educated in private schools and later at Trinity College Cambridge He earned degrees in mathematics and philosophy Eventually he taught at Cambridge Russell was a philosopher logician essayist noble prize winner and social critic He is known as one of the founders of analytic philosophy He is accredited with being one of the most important logicians of the 20th century His most influential contributions are his beliefs that mathematics is in some important sense reducible to logic and his theory of definite description and logical atomism He used first-order logic to show how a broad range of denoting phrases could be changed to predicates and quantified variables He is also remembered for his emphasis upon the importance of logical form for the resolution of many related philosophical problems Russell hoped that by applying logical machinery and insights people would be able to resolve difficulties Throughout his life he made many notable contributions in a wide range of subjects His writings included topics of education ethics politics history religion and popular science He achieved fame with his first major work The Principles of Mathematics 1902 He worked with the British philosopher and mathematician Alfred North Whitehead for eight years to compose a three volume work called Principia Mathematica 1910-1913 It showed that mathematics can be stated in terms of general logic His next famous work was The Problems of Philosophy 1912 After a visit to Russia he expressed his political views against their form of socialism in his book Practice and Theory of Bolshevism He authored many more books including What I Believe 1925
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