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Booker Taliaferro Washington was born on April 5 1856 in Franklin County Virginia near a cross-roads post-office called Hales Ford He was an American educator and a black leader When Booker was a child he worked in coal mines for nine months a year and spent the other three attending school In 1875 he graduated after working his way through Hampton Institute In 1881 he became the first president of Tuskegee Institute a trade school for blacks that live in Alabama When the Tuskegee Institute first opened it had only one teacher about fifty students and 2000 dollars a year from the state of Alabama By its 25th anniversary under Washingtons leadership the school had more than 1500 students training in 37 industries In 1882 Booker got married to Miss Fannie N Smith of Malden West Virginia Fannie died in May of 1884 One child Portia M Washington was born during their two year marriage In 1885 Booker married Miss Olivia Davidson Later on after four happy years of marriage Miss Olivia Davidson died in 1889 Two children had been born while they were married Booker Taliaferro Jr and Ernest Washington In 1893 he was married to Miss Margaret James Murray a native of Mississippi and a graduate of Fisk University located in Nashville Tennessee Although Washington lived during a time in which his race was widely discriminated against he recommended training black people for trades to build up their economic position before fighting for their integration and equality He believed that black people advance only if they were educated In 1895 Booker presented his views in a speech at the Atlanta Exposition he rapidly gained the attention of white leaders He became powerful in channeling contributions to black causes and in getting blacks appointed to federal jobs He advised presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft on racial matters Bookers greatest surprise was the letter he received from Harvard University on May 28 1896
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