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Ren Descartes is the first scientist to make the distinction between the impressions which are already present in our minds and the laws which must be followed in order to arrive at reasonably certain philosophical data He discarded the Scholasticism of his day while not fully discarding any of its ideas Known as the father of modern philosophy Descartes set up a method according to him which must be the basis of all scientific and philosophical research It included these four laws To accept nothing as true that is not recognized by the reason as clear and distinct To analyze complex ideas by breaking them down into their simple constitutive elements which reason can intuitively apprehend To reconstruct beginning with simple ideas and working synthetically to the complex and To make an accurate and complete inventory of the data of the problem For Descartes the point past which truth is impossible is the ideas clearly and distinctly known by the intellect Beyond these clear and distinct ideas one cannot go and hence the ultimate principle of truth consists in the clearness of the idea His system of coming up with ideas involves working from one step to the next achieving a system of truths all of which are clear and distinct because all participate in the same degree of truth enjoyed by the first idea which was clear and distinct This is the method adopted in mathematics Descartes transferred it to philosophy with the intention of finding clear and distinct concrete ideas and of deducing from these through reason alone an entire system of truths which would also be real or objective He believed that doubt was the proof of truth and that one could not doubt without thinking and if you think you exist Cogito ergo sum This phrase reveals the existence of the subject limited and imperfect because of the liability to doubt Descartes tried to prove the existence of God Cogito has
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