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Introduction The focus of this paper is alcoholism The aspects that will be examined in the following pages are the biology of alcoholism and the genetic basis determining that alcoholism is a hereditary disease Clarification of the phases of alcoholism as well as possible explanations of the nature of the disease will be offered Examination of studies concerning biological markers associated with alcoholism and advanced animal testing will allow further understanding of alcoholism and related problems With these biological components established it is important to further explore a study of alcoholism in different ethnic groups countries and cultures and as it relates to gender The role that alcoholism plays in varying cultures and the reasons behind its presence it is still largely debated Despite all of the studies and information gathered thus far scientists are still largely undecided as to the precise etiology of this disease because of its extremely complicated combination of physical and psychological components Phases of Alcoholism Due to the complicated combination of aspects that form alcoholism researchers have defined phases that attempt to separate contributors not in matters of importance but chronology The first phase of alcoholic tendencies begins before birth and continues to the subjects first alcoholic experience Here in the predromal phase genetic factors intra uterine factors and childhood environment all contribute to the susceptibility of a person to alcoholism It is obvious from this point why alcoholism runs in families genetics intra uterine conditions and childhood environment would all be greatly influenced by an alcoholic mother The second stage of alcoholic development is the induction phase this is the period in which a psychological attachment to alcohol is developed through a variety of the pleasure giving aspects that alcohol may have for the subject The next phase is physical dependence it is characterized by withdrawal craving and tremors and often a complete inability to control or curb drinking Kissin 1972 One postulation by researchers and
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