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On a typical basis George Fernandez is hit by sailing soccer balls jabbed by elbows is kicked by other players and sometimes flat-out knocked out cold He has had so many concussions he cannot remember some of them which cause temporary lapses in the brain and sometimes longer-term side effects Bellenir 72 This type of behavior is one source attributing to the increased occurrence of concussions during sports activities Georges case is a typical example of what is occurring on sports fields and arenas everyday On local playing fields as well as in amateur sports nationwide concussions are often viewed no differently than sprained ankles and sore muscles Expert Dr Rubin Echemendia of Pennsylvania State College has said that it is this perception on concussions that is dangerous because it is so far from the truth Hoffman 386 Thus one of the most confusing and dangerous of injuries has the sports world on What is a concussion It is a bruise to the brain caused by a sudden blow to the head The brain is ultra-sensitive and vulnerable to any amount of physical contact In a normal state the brain floats in a liquid which separates it from the inner skull The soft insulation prevents the brain from absorbing any pressure from the hard bone of the outer skull In addition the brain is covered by three protective membranes Powell 4 The outer most layer of the brain is called the dura mater This layer is connected to the soft interior of the skull at various points which serve to hold the brain within the skull The brain sits upon a brain stem a part of the spinal cord which passes out the bottom of the skull through a hole called the foramen magnum Roy 1 When the head is struck however the force sends the brain crashing in to the inner skull The seriousness of the bruise also known as cerebral contusion determines
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