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what are the disease symptoms associated with infection What is the vector that carries the parasite before it infects humans What is the unique cell type that is the target of parasite invasion Describe the mechanism of cell invasion with specific reference to proteins involved in the process of invasion and changes that occur in the cell post invasionChagas disease is a life-long debilitating disease that is well spread in South America Teixeria et al 2011The disease is caused by intracellular protozoan parasites Trypanosoma cruzi which commonly find in haematophagous pests that belongs to fanily reduvudae El-Sayed et al 2005 At meanwhile the insects disembark on to human animals to take a blood meal they expel the parasite containing excreta adjacent to the biting wound Thus the parasites can then enter and host in the affected body Therefore the parasites use the sanguivorous pests as their transition vectors to parasitize in human and animals Teixeria et al 2011The parasites contain the ability to invade most of the host cells that contain a nuclease Burleigh and Woolsey 2002 After the parasite debark the host body they penetrate through the mucosal membrane to attach to the cell wall of the underling muscle cells fibroblasts and macrophages At this point the cell would form parasitophorous vacuoles to surround the invading parasite bring it into the cell and try to eradicate it But Trypanosoma cruzi can able to escape from its surroundings and metamorphosis into amastigotes the dividing form of the parasite in the cytosol of the hosting cell The amatigotes can divide and then differentiate back into trypomastigotes Soon after the host cell has been filled up with the trypomastigotes it would burst and led the parasites into the blood stream In there the parasites can move around the host body to farther invade other cells such as cardiac ganglion adipocytes smooth and skeletal muscle cells Fernandes Andrews 2012During the invasion the Cytosolic T cruzi proteins
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